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Specifically, they examine whether the mere co-occurrence of a neutral stimulus and an affective cue is sufficient, or whether affect is bound to a neutral stimulus e. Their results suggest that affective cues can affect the evaluation of neutral information such as a logo, but that this sometimes results in an evaluation that contrasts the affective context.

They further suggest that "mere ignoring" of a stimulus perceptual inhibition leads to the reverse effect of mere exposure perceptual fluency , such that an ignored stimulus is less liked after exposure. Vanhouche, Warlop, and Baeyens examine whether a brand name acquires evaluative significance from an actual consumption experience in the presence of other cues e.

The authors find that a pleasant or aversive taste experience can indeed affect the liking or disliking of an associated brand name but that a brand name, unlike a color or scent, does not affect the actual consumption experience liking of a drink after having been associated with a pleasant or aversive taste. Instead, the brand name acts in a discriminatory manner by heightening the perceptual significance of other physical cues e.

Recently, van Osselaer and Janiszewski demonstrated that consumers have two, qualitatively different associative learning systems available that allow them to make predictions about product performance. Learning in this system is cue-independent. That is, learning of the relationship between one cue e. The other, adaptive learning system is more focused and forward-looking C it tries to create a prediction rule that allows the system to predict a specific dimension of product performance on the next occasion. This system requires that a dimension of performance be the focus of prediction during learning and assumes cue-performance associations change only to the extent the expected performance of the product does not match the experienced performance of the product.

Learning in this system is cue-interactive. In this presentation, the authors report preliminary results from two experiments that investigate the way the two learning systems represent stimuli in memory, as sums of separate elements or as indivisible stimulus configurations.

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In the first experiment, focus of prediction was manipulated. Focusing on predicting product performance should activate the adaptive system. Not focusing on predicting product performance should make consumers rely on the HAM system. When consumers did not focus on predicting product performance during learning, later predictions of product performance suggested product information was stored in a more configural way than when consumers had focused during learning.

In the second experiment, we used another manipulation that should affect which system dominates responses. We manipulated the direction forward-looking versus backward-looking of processing at the time of test i. As expected, results suggested that backward-looking processing led to predictions indicating a more configural memory representation than forward-looking processing.

noc19-bt12-lec03-Associative Learning I: Rules of Associative learning

In sum, preliminary results suggested that the two systems identified by van Osselaer and Janiszewski do not only differ in terms of learning processes, but also differ in how information is stored in memory. The HAM system seems to store stimulus information more configurally, as a whole instead of as a sum of parts. The adaptive system may store stimulus information more elementally, breaking down stimuli into their constituent parts and storing information about the parts.

Anderson, J. Janiszewski, C. A connectionist model of brand-quality associations. Journal of Marketing Research, 37, The affect generated subliminally is assumed to be free-floating and is hypothesized to become bound with the supraliminal object that is the focus of attention. Recently, this conclusion has been challenged and it has been suggested that the affect does not get bound to the object itself but simply "spills over" into the decision or evaluation at hand. This research poses a host of questions of interest to consumer research.

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For example, does the affect generated by a web site content or experiences automatically attach itself to all branded information present in the environment? Does it matter whether the branded information is actively attended to or actively ignored? Does it matter whether attention is focused on the source of the affect? We examined these questions in a series of studies.

Three Ways That Non-associative Knowledge May Affect Associative Learning Processes

The results suggest that an affective context can affect the evaluation of a " neutral" stimulus. However, the affect appears to only "spill over" into a decision when a stimulus is co-encountered with the affect at evaluation. Negative affective primes lower evaluations, whereas positive cues enhance evaluations of target stimuli. However, when the target stimulus is first encountered in an affective context without an explicit evaluative goal B whether the affective context is attended to or not B there is little evidence for this " assimilation.

The role of associative learning in sexual arousal

However, these results are not entirely conclusive. One of the most interesting findings was the effect of prior exposure on the evaluation of stimuli that were selected for attention, compared to those that were not selected for attention and therefore ignored. In one experiment, participants had to push the location of a pre-specified target object in the presence of a distractor object. Studies of attention show that this task involves actively ignoring he distractor. Studies on negative priming Tipper, suggest that this leads to perceptual inhibition the next time the distractor is encountered.

In contrast, the target object benefits from perceptual fluency which has been identified as the likely cause for the mere exposure effect, when objects are liked more after having been previously encountered Zajonc, We indeed found that "mere ignoring" leads to a decrement in subsequent liking which qualifies the mere exposure effect; mere exposure may only lead to increased liking when the object is not ignored. This has obvious implications for the processing of branded stimuli such as logos or banner ads that are often actively ignored during the goal-oriented navigation of web sites.

Murphy, S. Affect, cognition, and awareness: Affective priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 64, Tipper, S. The negative priming effect: Inhibitory priming by ignored objects. Zajonc, R. Attitudinal effect of mere exposure. Edited By Andy J. Edition 1st Edition. First Published Imprint Psychology Press. Pages pages. Subjects Behavioral Sciences. Export Citation. Get Citation. Wills, A.

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